[citation needed], General Schmidt had planned a combined assault the next day, 14 May, using tanks of the 9th Panzer supported by flame throwers, SS troops and combat engineers. The USAAF claimed to have shot down 8 enemy aircraft, probably downed four more and possibly one, and sustained damage to four bombers, with one man killed and three wounded. The attack started with the Luftwaffe crossing through Dutch airspace, giving the impression that Britain was the ultimate target. After a brief moment of deliberation Scharroo made the decision to capitulate, which General Winkelman approved of by means of his direct representative, Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. The Dutch surrendered in the late afternoon of 14 May, signing the capitulation early the next morning. This attack was to be carried out as quickly and as forcefully as possible. Basingstoke: Macmillan. He deployed troops along the entire river and to the west, north and east of the city. [21][22][23], Schmidt relented and issued a second ultimatum of 16:20. One B-24 and four B-17's were damaged. An investigation was launched, which later proved that it had been a stray German bullet that had hit Student. Meanwhile, Göring had ordered the Kampfgeshewader 54 (KG 54)—with its 90 Heinkel He 111 bombers—to take off from three bases near Bremen. They manned the houses along the north side of the island with heavy machine gun crews and placed a few 80 mm (3.15 in) mortars in the center of the island. Meyer, Han (1999). Taverne, E.R.M. [5], With a significant military advantage, the German leadership intended to expedite the conquest of the country by first taking control of key military and strategic targets, such as airfields, bridges, and roads, and then using these to gain control of the remainder of the country. [38], The United Kingdom had had a policy of bombing only military targets and infrastructure such as ports and railways which were of military importance. 61 Ventura bombers flew two raids on the Rotterdam docks and another one on a railway at. ISBN, Hinchcliffe, Peter (2001). Queensland, Australia. The first RAF raid on the interior of Germany took place on the night of 15/16 May 1940.[40][41]. While Germany had planned to take over swiftly using this tactic, the Dutch halted the advance at the core region of Fortress Holland, slowing down the German invasion. I realised then only too well that the phoney war was over and that this was for real. This was the first time I'd ever seen devastation by fires on this scale. He was very upset about the German "breach of their word of honour" and refused any further contact with them whatsoever. Veen, 1999).This article may contain spoilers! The Germans accepted the reply from Scharroo. Colonel Scharroo sent his adjutant, Captain J. D. Backer, to the Germans with the Dutch reply. They had suffered three men killed in action.[2]. Along the waterfront, a couple of miles down the New Meuse (nieuwe Maas) river, cranes lever the bales and boxes of an industrial world in and out of the new warehouses. Dutch garrison forces under Colonel Scharroo held the north bank of the Nieuwe Maas river, which runs through the city and prevented the Germans from crossing; German forces included airlanding and airborne forces of General Student and newly arrived ground forces under General Schmidt, based on the 9th Panzer Division and the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, a motorized SS regiment. All Dutch attempts to seize the building failed, but so did all German attempts to resupply or reinforce the occupants. p. 352. While armament production was slightly increased after the invasion of Denmark in April 1940, the Netherlands possessed 35 modern wheeled armoured fighting vehicles, no tracked armoured fighting vehicles, 135 aircraft and 280,000 soldiers,[4] while Germany had 159 tanks,[5] 1,200 modern aircraft,[citation needed] and around 150,000 soldiers at their disposal for the Dutch theatre alone. General Georg von Küchler, commander-in-chief over the Dutch operational area, sent instructions to Schmidt that on the morning of 14 May that an ultimatum had to be presented to the Dutch local commander in which unconditional surrender of the city would be demanded.[2]. "Rotterdam in de Tweede Wereldoorlog" (in Dutch). Scharroo was handed the letter, which said that if resistance did not cease the Germans would destroy Rotterdam. Korps frei, um auch die 110 km südlich er gelegene Ramree Island anzugreifen, die auf etwa 80 km Länge und 32 km Breite eine zumeist flache Topographie aufwies. [33] Schmidt sent a conciliatory message to the Dutch commander General Winkelman, who surrendered shortly afterwards, at Rijsoord, a village southeast of Rotterdam. While the Germans occupied the Netherlands during the Second World War (1940–1945), Allied air forces carried out a number of operations over Rotterdam and the surrounding region. A number of new or previously incomplete projects – such as the Maastunnel and Rotterdamsche bank – were to be completed under Witteveen's plan, and these kept the Dutch people in work during the German occupation of the city, until all construction was halted.