Marc H.G. Resulting toxicity data for S. capricornutum generally indicated that the WAFs were very toxic, exhibiting median effective loading concentrations (EL50s) based on cell density increases or growth rates of less than 1 mg l− 1. Excessive consumption of licorice is known to be toxic, producing hypertension and edema (Atanasov et al., 2005). The acrylamide/acrylate ester copolymers varied in charge density from 10% to 39%. For example, farmed animals had only three and five detects of PFOA and PFOS, respectively, of 127 samples analyzed with maximum concentrations of 1 μg/kg; in contrast, PFOA and PFOS were detected in 54 and 179 animals, respectively, of 521 or 522 tested, with PFOS residues ranging from 1 to 641 μg/kg. Acute LC50 values from the dynamic studies equaled 42.6, 96, 156, and 384 μg l− 1 for the three polyamines and one acrylamide, respectively. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8, is an artificial acid that has many industrial uses. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant. The active component of licorice was found to be mainly glycyrrhetinic acid, which potently inhibited rat liver 11β-HSD1 (Marandici & Monder, 1993). Reinert, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2015, Cationic, Anionic, Nonionic, and Amphoteric Polymers (Including Quarternary Aminoesters). Finally, field studies were conducted in rivers and lakes in good biological condition and receiving quantifiable amounts of WWTF effluents. Estimated average daily intake of PFOS (for example, 11.8 ± 10.6 ng/kg body weight/day) and PFOA (for example, 9.6 ± 4.9 ng/kg body weight/day) by infants, via breastfeeding, is considerably higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes (Tao et al., 2008b). The acute toxicity of a number of cationic polymers was assessed in D. magna, fathead minnow (P. promelas), gammarids (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), and midges (Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus) using in vitro testing methods. From the fertilization of the egg, through gestation and during the first years after birth, a continuous development is going on and disturbances during susceptible periods can induce many different types of negative alterations in the organism. PFOA induced apoptosis in human HepG2 cells with the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, and caspase-9 in PFPA-induced apoptosis. With half-lives in humans measured in years, human exposures to PFOA and PFOS will continue even though their manufacture and use have been essentially phased out. One can conclude from these studies that cationic charge and the physical bulk of the polymer were the determining factors in the toxicity noted in the nonrenewal system. Both carbenoxolone and glycyrrhetinic acid are competitive inhibitors of 11β-HSD1. The low ACRs indicate therefore that the resulting toxicity was a function of rapid acute effects rather than long-term cumulative effects. Nonionic polymers are not charged because they do not contain an ionizable moiety. A survey in Spain showed PFOS levels of < 0.008, 0.011, and < 0.008 ng/g and PFOA levels of < 0.085, < 0.075, and < 0.088 ng/g in raw, grilled, and fried pork respectively (Ericson Jogsten et al. Acute LC50 values from the nonrenewal studies equaled 592, 271, 779, and 661 μg l− 1 for the three polyamines and one acrylamide, respectively. The environmental liabilities of the high molecular weight polymers are limited due to their size, that is, molecular size exclusions and general recalcitrance to degradation. 2009; Ostertag et al. Cousins, in Persistent Organic Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Foods, 2013. %%EOF PFOA is part of a class of chemicals called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Both PFOS and PFOA are emitted directly into the environment freely as leached ingredients or indirectly from degrading precursor molecules present in consumer or industrial products (Wang et al., 2014). The data indicate that PFOS is practically nontoxic to freshwater algae and aquatic vascular plants, that is, Lemna gibba. R. Vestergren, I.T. The LC50 values ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 mg l− 1 MAQ in seven river and lake water tests (LC50 in laboratory water averaged 0.06 mg l− 1). Unlike the categories of persistent organic pollutants described in the previous sections, neither PFOS nor PFOA accumulate in adipose tissue of animals. The toxicity seen in these fry were attributed to charge density. per day, respectively, are well below the TDI of 1.5 μg/kg b.w. 2007). There are several reports that PFOS and PFOA from non-stick cookware or packing materials may migrate into meat and other foods, but the comparison of data between raw and cooked meat and other foods did not indicate any detectable migration (Bradley et al.