The oil sample was heated in a beaker to 110, The transesterification reaction was carried out using 100% technical grade ethyl alcohol. A rotary evaporator was used to drive off the water and any remaining alcohol. Triplicate samples were used for the experiments. ; Watts, K.C. ; McLean, D.D. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids were found to be approximately 26% (C18:2, C18:3). Hilber, High viscosity is the major problem preventing the use of vegetable oils and animal fats directly in diesel engines. Energy Convers Manag 42:529–538. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8NJ05516E, Soares IP, Rezende TF, Silva RC, Castro EVR, Forte ICP (2008) Multivariate calibration by variable selection for blends of raw soybean oil/biodiesel from different sources using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra data. ; Stephen, J.D. Next, the adsorbed WCO was used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction. Google Scholar, Altin R, Cetinkaya S, Yucesu HS (2001) Potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.039, Ferrero GO, Almeida MF, Ferraz MCMA, Dias JM (2015) Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil. Kemp [, The conversion of waste cooking oil to ester was monitored and samples were taken every 5 minutes for 20 minutes, when it was considered that the reaction was completed. © 2008 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. The first and last author would like to acknowledge Atlantic Innovation Fund and NSERC discovery grant for funding this project. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. Issariyakul, T.; Kulkarni, M.G. The alcohol used was 280 mL per liter of waste cooking oil. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11:838–857. Hilber, T.; Mittelbach, M.; Schmidt, E. Animal fats perform well in biodiesel. [. In this experiment, it was found that there was no water and sediment content in the sample. After the analysis, a correction factor was applied to convert the FAME to ethyl ester. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-020-10162-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-020-10162-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in This is because the original oil used was found to be canola oil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1175-1, Dube MA, Zheng S, Mclean DD, Kates MJA (2004) Comparison of attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy and GPC for monitoring biodiesel production. To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.10.163, CAS  Connemann, J.; Fischer, J. Biodiesel in Europe 1998: biodiesel processing technologies. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Washing of final ester products is a very important activity during biodiesel processing. The density of biodiesel at 15 o C was found to be 87 g/cm 3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-0948-x, Odetoye TE, Ogunniyi DS, Olatunji GA (2010) Preparation and evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus seed oil alkyd resins. Inga Dorfman -- 2000 This study was carried out to determine the potential of waste cooking oil (WCO) in preparation of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam. A feed strategy was developed to delay the stationary phase, and therefore achieve higher final biomass and biopolymer (PHA) productivity. The Energy Information Administration in the United States estimated that some 100 million gallons of waste cooking oil is produced per day in USA, where the average, Diesel fuel consumption significantly contributes to the formation of greenhouse gases (GHG) and other global pollutant emissions. The BD was characterized by its physical, fuel characteristics including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, pour point, and foaming tendency, and compared with existing diesel fuel in accordance with ASTM test standard. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. : +55 21 9963 5806; fax: +55 21 2562 8751. A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels. (2020)Cite this article. Radich, A. Biodiesel performance, costs, and use. Energy Convers Manag 42:529–538. The ASTM standard limit for water and sediment was is 0.05% by volume of the sample. http://www.rendermagazine.com/pages/pastarticles2006.html. The fatty acid composition of final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography and found that the waste cooking oil contains mainly oleic acid in the final products. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oil. Waste cooking oil must not be poured down drains or sewers because this causes: blockages bad smell; vermin problems polluted watercourses leading to problems for wildlife; If waste cooking oil is poured down drains or sewers, it can result in potential prosecution. The sample was tested to determine the fuel characteristics according to ASTM Biodiesel Fuel Quality Assurance Standard Test. BBC. Roger, A.K. PubMed  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.04.016, Sarpal AS, Silva PRM, Silva SR, Monteiro TV, Itacolomy J, Cunha VS, Daroda RJ (2015) Direct method for the determination of iodine value of biodiesel by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (q1H-NMR) spectroscopy. the Open University Bio UK Fuels is the end of the recycling loop for vegetable oil waste where we aim to convert over 99% of the used vegetable oil into biodiesel (methyl ester). The properties evaluated were fuel density, kinematic viscosity, cetane index, distillation temperatures, and sulfur content, measured according to standard test methods. and Jisc. In order to prepare the sample for GC analysis, the ethyl esters were converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by acid catalyzed transesterification. Aust J Mech Eng:1–14. Business Waste LTD is fully compliant with UK waste management and transportation legislation. You seem to have javascript disabled. Fuel 235:538–550. It was found that free glycerin, total glycerin, sodium and potassium and simulated distillation for 90% recovery did not meet the requirement. J Colloid Interface Sci 333:707–718. Energies 11:2132. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082132, Carlinia M, Castelluccib S, Cocchia S (2014) A pilot-scale study of waste vegetable oil transesterification with alkaline and acidic catalysts. In this experiment, waste cooking oil was collected from a local restaurant (Tajmahal Restaurant) in Halifax, which serves fast food as well as continental foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 81:599–603. Energy Fuel 29:7956–7968. Each biodiesel sample was dissolved in chloroform and applied to a chromatod. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4CS00189C, Ali OM, Mamat R, Abdullah NR, Abdullah AA (2016) Analysis of blended fuel properties and engine performance with palm biodiesel-diesel blended fuel. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.05.005, Reddy SM, Sharma N, Gupta N, Agarwal AK (2018) Effect of non-edible oil and its biodiesel on wear of fuel injection equipment components of a genset engine. US Energy Information Administration; 2006. It was observed that the average viscosity of canola oil sample was measured to be 70 mm, The density of waste cooking oil measured at 21. ; Reaney, M.J.; Hertz, P.B. Hilber. [. Tel. Energy 162:408–420. J Biotechnol Biomater 6:1–15. Special thanks to Central Research Facility, CSIR-CMERI for providing the FE-SEM data and to the Director, CSIR-CMERI for permission to publish this work.