Steps of Protein Synthesis 1. )+Z���>�I�s���%��$���$�I��d ��C)��8#Y����I��1� 5 0 obj <> Protein Synthesis . Protein Synthesis: An Overview •The answer lies in an intermediate substance known as mRNA. lO�Ev;a��O�S���d��{٪NuP���Q��]o��t٨��y�k�)�Q���@��~�G�j��{�xڑ��0�N+�j�>����Q(�߃���aH\&t*u���� x���Mk�@����9�JMf7�Ā~c��jh)���jlM��]fg�w��Ypch6�qw�j����—m�CDR) endobj %%EOF Protein synthesis is the making of a protein. –Viruses contain a few to several hundred genes. AS 8 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS QUESTIONSHEET 19 (a) when lactose is absent gene i becomes active; gene i codes for the synthesis of a repressor protein; the repressor protein binds to the operator site; this blocks the process of transcription of genes z, y and a (onto messenger RNA); since it blocks the action of RNA polymerase/will not allow RNA polymerase to move along DNA (from the promotor region Proteins form structures, enzymes, or other chemicals to create the building blocks of organisms and maintain homeostasis. 7 0 obj 3 0 obj c�A8.��8�I�p:?L�ZW�v��K�W�U���V�rx��G�f��[#�nǝuJ'���y��e�����B��YY���R�fW�=��. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is housed in the nucleus. Amino Acids (AAs) Building blocks of proteins (20 AAs essential) Protein = AA chain = polypeptide chain ORDER MATTERS! –Escherichia coli (E. coli) contains ~1000 genes. AA order determines f(x) of protein ?s 8-12. How exactly do all those letters in DNA code for making a living thing? $.' 32 0 obj <> endobj •Information is copied from DNA into mRNA, this is transcription •mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm of the cell •Ribosomes use the mRNA as a blueprint to synthesize proteins composed of aa, this is translation. stream 3. %PDF-1.5 endobj n endobj Protein Synthesis? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS R.J. Schneider INTRODUCTION The regulation of protein synthesis is an important part of the regulation of gene expression. �(!�_�w���܋Q[��H�B�nWӟ��Q�����Za���o�~/��*9�G�1⛤����2���|�V�Z�VT����Hp�ފ������~P5�kh%k�����k�[-FK����Z ��R�aP$-�ױ��v���,�{,��ݨ��Ϛ'�N`5{��e�waLj��.�Z4�4S���r���C?���6ՌJ{�Z��,��D�Ϩ�`�0��� S�Lv�T�� 9�FԲ����|�����(*$��h5��'t x�+T0421�3 �4F�&��{�&���+��+ � 4. Ribosome Reads mRNA Directs tRNA Creates peptide bonds between AAs (makes polypeptide chain) What Do We Need For Protein Synthesis? h�b```"ɮ� Ā B�@������r���y�$�>0�00��)�~fI.�$��E�x�J 0 Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation Proteins have multiple roles within the cell: as enzymes, signals, structural components, defense, transport, and storage among other things. 4 0 obj %PDF-1.6 %���� <> \ �����4����0����Z�6f S���� T�� �,� 6 0 obj endstream endobj 33 0 obj <> endobj 34 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 17 0 R/Type/Page>> endobj 35 0 obj <>stream 1 0 obj endstream Chapter 11 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 25 Genes • Individual sections of DNA molecules make up the genes, which are the fundamental units of heredity that direct the synthesis of proteins. h�bbd``b`� �@��#�`� $8^ �'�փd ���0 \'� stream ",#(7),01444'9=82. This code is ultimately translated into a sequence of amino acids that, when complete, becomes a protein. <>>>/Filter/FlateDecode/Length 38>> h��V]o�6�+|�0�7)��N����:�Py�%Z&JI.E���! ���� JFIF ` ` �� ZExif MM * J Q Q �Q � �� ���� C 2 0 obj <>/XObject<>/Pattern<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj stream 26 The types of protein produced within a cell depend on the information stored in the cell’s DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). A ribosome Protein synthesis involves three distinct stages: transcription; translation; and protein folding 1. K�� –Humans cells contain ~25,000 genes. endobj <> ���$ޙG�L&�O^)�-sc���R�b�l��Å�Gf��W;�8�c��`�ߕ���M���>�p�s endobj <> Protein Synthesis Overview. %���� <>>> endstream endobj startxref !T�&���\�¶��܇e�A�VU�- +��(��d�@��_�5�z�-菻 g��Y�UR�"�+�; wH�,T>$ے,$��Q��H_A�6���*�ж^1�n��U�*`.|�)����Rh\�� �{��'�9��|q����ã9Q������8=LA�=�O��"��t�R��T[(����Y�3�p�Vp2�ך��#�_�Aʣ�v�!� 47 0 obj <>stream endstream �]�+_��\�雳�u��x��g�M���͂s3s��@?w�@��fA�L�Y��l��>�͠]!��]��-�w��s��=�%"M���遊���i�Њ�V�&�O���>�A�b��Y�G�Zp�̑HC����z���aV��r! The short answer is that the code of letters in DNA is a recipe to make proteins. Transcription Transcription is the making of messenger RNA using a DNA template.Enzymes unwind the double helix and separate the two strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds… It is carried out by a ribosome. 38 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5B60A3AA061F42DAFF65AFD5E89A475D><1509800B5DF9E64E965B7E0760C75317>]/Index[32 16]/Info 31 0 R/Length 53/Prev 210012/Root 33 0 R/Size 48/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Contents Introduction .....1 DNA Transcription .....1 The Primary Transcript .....4 Translation .....7 Protein Structure.....11 References .....11 Resources .....11 Introduction The genetic message carried on the DNA molecule is a code.